The COR Advantage assesses early childhood development from infancy through kindergarten in eight content areas: Approaches to Learning; Social and Emotional Development; Physical Development and Health; Language, Literacy, and Communication; Mathematics; Creative Arts; Science and Technology; and Social Studies. A ninth area, English Language Learning, can also be used when appropriate (that is, with children whose first language is other than English). Each content area comprises items that address key concepts in early learning, for a total of 34 items plus the 2 items for English language learners. Based on objective anecdotal notes about the child, recorded over time by an observer (such as a teacher, caregiver, parent, or researcher), each COR item is scored using an eight-level scale ranging from 0 (lowest) to 7 (highest). To help observers score the COR reliably and validly, notes are provided for each area, item, and level, along with two anecdotal examples for each level.
COR Advantage is a birth-to-kindergarten assessment
Child progress across 8 content areas.
Children with Disabilities
COR Advantage is appropriate for all children. The eight levels of COR Advantage provide an overlapping continuum so that children can be scored at the developmental and ability level appropriate for them. This system accommodates children with special needs and developmental delays, as well as those whose early learning may be more advanced in some content areas than others.
A ninth area, English Language Learning, can be used when appropriate and includes measures for monitoring a child’s progress in the acquisition and usage of the English language.
Time of Administration
The COR Advantage is on-going and observation based.
COR Advantage supports teachers and administrators in making informed decisions, creating effective lesson plans, communicating with families about their child’s progress, and monitoring the progress of individual children as well as groups of children. An easy to understand scoring system which includes definitions and examples for all eight scoring levels reduces scoring confusion about where to score a child’s development and maximizes the instrument’s inter-rater reliability. In addition, the ability to create planning reminders while recording observations and to support observations with work samples provide teachers with critical insight in how to individualize instruction for each child.
Using the ongoing information collected teachers create Lesson Plans that represent the interest and developmental skills of all children in the classroom. Organize your daily plan using the online library of sample daily schedules or create your own daily schedule. Finally select from a library of activities and strategies correlated to each COR item or add your own teacher created activity as part of the planning process.
Connect with each child’s family through the secure online Family Network. The Family Network can be used to publish observations, work samples, lesson plans, work samples, or send messages that engage families in their child’s progress. The Family Network includes a library of at-home activities for families to review and/or print to support their child’s learning.
COR Advantage offers many levels of reporting to meet the varying needs of teachers, families, administrators, and other key individuals involved in your programs education of the young children and families you serve. Reporting levels include child-level reports, classroom reports, school reports, group reports and program-wide reports.
COR Advantage child reports enable teachers to monitor progress in each of the COR domains, view growth across multiple time periods, and compare child scores to other metrics such as the Head Start Child Development and Early Learning Framework and other standards. Child reports are available in both English and Spanish.
There are many classroom reports available ranging from composite reports, to reports focusing on a single COR item with all children’s scores represented. Many of the classroom reports are available from the teacher and administrator view.
COR Advantage offers many reports for administrators to monitor child progress and program goals.
The Predictive Assessment of Reading (PAR) is a short (12 - 15 minute) universal reading test that:
Measures a student’s current level of reading skills;
Calculates an accurate prediction of present and future reading scores;
Tells what particular extra skill training each child needs; and
Suggests strategies for remediation of those needs.
PAR can be given beginning in the spring of Pre-K through 3rd grade and tests four basic skills that every child needs in order to learn to read and to keep growing in reading skills.
Picture Naming Vocabulary - Looking at a picture of an object and saying the name of the object. It’s a good way to measure a child’s overall vocabulary or knowledge of word meanings. Vocabulary is the foundation of language itself and is essential for growth in reading beyond 1st grade.
Letter-Word Calling - Looking at a word and pronouncing it correctly, either by sight (just knowing it), or by “sounding it out” (breaking the word “bat” into b-a-t, knowing the sound each letter makes, and blending the separate letters “b-a-t” together to make “bat.”)
Phonemic Awareness - Understanding the individual sounds in a word. If a child has trouble learning to read, it’s usually because of trouble with the sounds in words. The child may be able to hear and pronounce words correctly, but have difficulty taking the word apart into its individual sounds (for example, being able to say “ark” when asked to say “mark” without the “mmm” sound).
Rapid Naming Fluency - Quickly naming a string of familiar items on a page, such as series of numbers, letters, colors or objects.
PAR results are reported in three different ways:
Standard scores - Each skill area receives a score; then two overall composite scores are given; (1) the expected reading level on a current one-on-one test like the Woodcock-Johnson; and (2) the predicted future 3rd grade and 8th grade reading scores (3rd grade based on WJ III and 8th grade based on Gates Macginitie)
Remediation codes - These codes tell which skills should be the highest priority for remedial attention in order for reading skills to develop satisfactorily. Codes are provided for children in need of intervention, those reading at grade level, and those reading above current grade level.
Intensity codes - These codes tell how serious the need is for intervention and in what type of setting the student will best benefit (one-on-one, small group, whole class instruction).
The PAR can be administered to preschool children (those expected to transition to kindergarten in the fall) beginning in the spring semester and administered to children in kindergarten through the 3 grade in the fall, winter, and spring.
Yes, the PAR is available in both English and Spanish. The Spanish supplement to PAR uses a separate Picture Naming & Letter-Word Calling cue card with Spanish words. The Spanish supplement is intended for use with students in schools where either: (a) English is already the medium of instruction, or (b) the intended goal for students in the school is to acquire reading skills in English within the next three years.
PAR goes beyond measuring a student’s reading ability. It doesn’t just tell the teacher that the child is behind in reading; it provides data which shows the specific areas where the student needs the most instruction along with strategies to include in a classroom’s small-group time and whole classroom time.
PAR helps with the transition from testing to teaching. As many children will need the same type of help, some of the individualized instruction can be accomplished through whole class and small-group instruction, in addition to one-on-one attention. The advantage of using PAR over other reading assessments, is that once the teacher knows which skills each student needs to improve to be a successful reader, PAR provides ideas and instruction for both whole class and small-group times allowing the teacher to plan appropriate strategies based on the information learned from the most recent testing results. Whole class instruction includes information for Transition Times, Teacher Talk Time, and Text Times; while small-group settings include instruction for phonological decoding and vocabulary building.
PAR is quick and easy taking only about 12-15 minutes per student. It provides immediate feedback for teachers and a list of strategies for improvement and a means of monitoring. The PAR is designed to be administered by a teacher, one child at a time, beginning with the spring semester for Pre-K children transitioning to kindergarten in the fall, then continuing up to three times a year for children in kindergarten through 3rd grade.
The reliability, validity, specificity, sensitivity, classification accuracy data for PAR are all at or nearly at 90% for all measures which resulted in it being classified as having convincing evidence of its ability to accurately identify reading deficits. PAR has been completely researched and field tested since 1986. Please see our Technical Manual for a full description of this longitudinal research. PAR’s scoring logic is so specific that it has received a U.S. Patent for its scoring algorithms.
The predictive algorithms for PAR change over time. Different subtests are weighted differently in different years and portions of years. As a result, First Grade scores on PAR predict Eighth Grade reading better than any other First Grade screener predicts Second Grade reading. PAR accounts for changes in the demands of reading over time in a way other tests can’t (Steven Dykstra, 2014).
The National Center on Response to Intervention rates PAR with their highest rating - convincing evidence - in all areas of reliability and validity. PAR subtests are representative of the expectations, knowledge and skills identified in the Common CORE State Standards (CCSS) for reading foundation skills (phonological awareness, phonics and word recognition, ability to read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension), and language skills (conventions of Standard English and vocabulary acquisition).
Yes, the PAR and CBM (Curriculum Based Measurement) can be used together effectively.
PAR’s Family Guide explains to parents what PAR measures and how to interpret the scoring- Remediation and Intensity Codes. In addition, the Family Report provides a summary of a student’s performance and specific strategies parents can employ at home to challenge students and scaffold learning.
The PAR kit includes assessment stimulus cards, score sheets, progress monitoring materials to go along with an online platform that allows teachers to get and share student and classroom data with parents and other educators.
The annual subscription starts at $7/student and includes all of the materials necessary for administering the PAR. Quantity pricing available.
Call 1-888-386-3822 option 1; fax your order to 336-777-0096; or send your purchase order to Red-e Set Grow, LLC P.O. Box 1674 Clemmons, NC 27012
OnlinePAR.net provides tutorials and other information about research and testimonials as to PAR’s effectiveness. Discussion and demonstrations of PAR can be scheduled by contacting Gavin Haque at: (888) 386-3822 Ext 1712 or email@example.com
PAR can be used as an initial screener for dyslexia because two of the PAR subtests directly assess areas that predict developmental dyslexia. These subtests, phonemic awareness and rapid naming speed, have been consistently shown to be concurrent predictors of dyslexia (Landeri, et. al, 2012, Pennington, Cardosao-Martins, Green, & Lefly, 2001; Torgensen, Wagner, Rashotte, Burgess, & Hecht, 1997). After administering PAR, educators can use the results to identify students who are predicted to struggle in learning to read based on one, or both, of these areas. As early as a Kindergarten, educators can identify these students and suggest further evaluation by a qualified professional.
Landeri, K., Ramus, F., Moll, K., Lyyhnen, H., Leppanen, P., Lohvansuu, K., . . . Schulte-Korne, G. (2012). Predictors of developmental dyslexia in European orthographies with varying complexity. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54, 686-694.
Pennington, B.F., Cardoso-Martins, C., Green, P.A., Lefly, D.L. Comparing the phonological and double deficit hypotheses for developmental dyslexia. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 14, 707-755.
Torgesen, J.K., Wagner, R.K., Rashotte, C.A., Burgess, C., & Hecht, S. (1997). Contributions of phonological awareness and rapid automatic naming ability to the growth of word-reading skills in second-to-fifth grade children. Scientific Studies of Reading, 1, 161-185.