A normed assessment for measuring gross motor skills, fine motor skills, language skills, and cognitive skills.
30 months to 72 months.
Pre-K and K
Total 45 minutes for all sections. Each subscale can be administered and scored independently.
Percentile rank scores, Standard Score, Age Equivalent score, T score, Z score, and NCE.
As a norm‐referenced assessment tool, the Learning Accomplishment Profile‐Diagnostic (LAP‐D) Third Edition provides a systematic method for observing individual development of children functioning in the 30 to 72 month age range. Teachers, special educators, clinicians, parents, and other professionals can use the LAP‐D to provide a context for understanding individual skill development in comparison to the standardization sample. In addition, the results of the LAP‐D can be used to plan and implement individualized, developmentally appropriate activities for children in educational and/or home settings.
The LAP‐D is designed for children both with typical and with atypical development. Standard scores produced by the LAP‐D include T‐score, NCE‐score, Z‐score, Percentile‐rank score, and Age‐equivalent score. Standardized materials, procedures, and criteria for determining a child’s level of functioning are included for each item to help ensure consistent and accurate results. The LAP‐D may be administered in English or Spanish and includes separate norm‐tables for each language.
The LAP‐D consists of a total of 226 developmental skills arranged hierarchically in four domains of development, with two subscales in each domain:
The LAP‐D is appropriate for children functioning in the 30 to 72 month age range. Children with disabilities who are older than 72 months may be assessed using the LAP‐D if observational data or other diagnostic evaluation data indicate they are functioning in the 30 to 72 month age range. However, for children older than 72 months, the standard scores should not be used.
The LAP‐D may be administered in either English or Spanish. Both the English and Spanish versions were standardized on separate national samples of children based on the primary language of each participating child. During the past decade, many factors have changed in the overall population of the United States and the provision of early childhood services. Without a doubt, these changes had an impact upon the psychometric properties of the LAP‐D, which was previously standardized in 1992.
Furthermore, the significant increase in the Latino population in the United States during the past decade (U.S. Census, 2000) has led to the need for a Spanish edition of the LAP‐D. The research included representative samples of both English‐ and Spanish‐speaking children in order to re‐norm the LAP‐D in English as well as to develop and establish norms for the LAP‐D in Spanish. Furthermore, psychometric properties, such as test construction, reliability, and validity, were examined for both the English and Spanish versions to ensure the technical competence of the LAP‐D for each language group.
There are no state alignments for this product at this time.
One of the most profound challenges in early childhood is aligning developmentally appropriate curriculum with high quality interactions focused at the developing level of each child’s growth and learning, including those with special learning needs.
Several considerations are important when meeting goals for this type of effective early learning instruction. Effective teaching builds upon children’s current level of understanding, creates links among multiple skills, and is responsive to the individual learning needs of each child. Information gathered from LAP-D 3rd Edition assessments provides the information critical to supporting this process.
The Predictive Assessment of Reading (PAR) is a short (12 - 15 minute) universal reading test that:
Measures a student’s current level of reading skills;
Calculates an accurate prediction of present and future reading scores;
Tells what particular extra skill training each child needs; and
Suggests strategies for remediation of those needs.
PAR can be given beginning in the spring of Pre-K through 3rd grade and tests four basic skills that every child needs in order to learn to read and to keep growing in reading skills.
Picture Naming Vocabulary - Looking at a picture of an object and saying the name of the object. It’s a good way to measure a child’s overall vocabulary or knowledge of word meanings. Vocabulary is the foundation of language itself and is essential for growth in reading beyond 1st grade.
Letter-Word Calling - Looking at a word and pronouncing it correctly, either by sight (just knowing it), or by “sounding it out” (breaking the word “bat” into b-a-t, knowing the sound each letter makes, and blending the separate letters “b-a-t” together to make “bat.”)
Phonemic Awareness - Understanding the individual sounds in a word. If a child has trouble learning to read, it’s usually because of trouble with the sounds in words. The child may be able to hear and pronounce words correctly, but have difficulty taking the word apart into its individual sounds (for example, being able to say “ark” when asked to say “mark” without the “mmm” sound).
Rapid Naming Fluency - Quickly naming a string of familiar items on a page, such as series of numbers, letters, colors or objects.
PAR results are reported in three different ways:
Standard scores - Each skill area receives a score; then two overall composite scores are given; (1) the expected reading level on a current one-on-one test like the Woodcock-Johnson; and (2) the predicted future 3rd grade and 8th grade reading scores (3rd grade based on WJ III and 8th grade based on Gates Macginitie)
Remediation codes - These codes tell which skills should be the highest priority for remedial attention in order for reading skills to develop satisfactorily. Codes are provided for children in need of intervention, those reading at grade level, and those reading above current grade level.
Intensity codes - These codes tell how serious the need is for intervention and in what type of setting the student will best benefit (one-on-one, small group, whole class instruction).
The PAR can be administered to preschool children (those expected to transition to kindergarten in the fall) beginning in the spring semester and administered to children in kindergarten through the 3 grade in the fall, winter, and spring.
Yes, the PAR is available in both English and Spanish. The Spanish supplement to PAR uses a separate Picture Naming & Letter-Word Calling cue card with Spanish words. The Spanish supplement is intended for use with students in schools where either: (a) English is already the medium of instruction, or (b) the intended goal for students in the school is to acquire reading skills in English within the next three years.
PAR goes beyond measuring a student’s reading ability. It doesn’t just tell the teacher that the child is behind in reading; it provides data which shows the specific areas where the student needs the most instruction along with strategies to include in a classroom’s small-group time and whole classroom time.
PAR helps with the transition from testing to teaching. As many children will need the same type of help, some of the individualized instruction can be accomplished through whole class and small-group instruction, in addition to one-on-one attention. The advantage of using PAR over other reading assessments, is that once the teacher knows which skills each student needs to improve to be a successful reader, PAR provides ideas and instruction for both whole class and small-group times allowing the teacher to plan appropriate strategies based on the information learned from the most recent testing results. Whole class instruction includes information for Transition Times, Teacher Talk Time, and Text Times; while small-group settings include instruction for phonological decoding and vocabulary building.
PAR is quick and easy taking only about 12-15 minutes per student. It provides immediate feedback for teachers and a list of strategies for improvement and a means of monitoring. The PAR is designed to be administered by a teacher, one child at a time, beginning with the spring semester for Pre-K children transitioning to kindergarten in the fall, then continuing up to three times a year for children in kindergarten through 3rd grade.
The reliability, validity, specificity, sensitivity, classification accuracy data for PAR are all at or nearly at 90% for all measures which resulted in it being classified as having convincing evidence of its ability to accurately identify reading deficits. PAR has been completely researched and field tested since 1986. Please see our Technical Manual for a full description of this longitudinal research. PAR’s scoring logic is so specific that it has received a U.S. Patent for its scoring algorithms.
The predictive algorithms for PAR change over time. Different subtests are weighted differently in different years and portions of years. As a result, First Grade scores on PAR predict Eighth Grade reading better than any other First Grade screener predicts Second Grade reading. PAR accounts for changes in the demands of reading over time in a way other tests can’t (Steven Dykstra, 2014).
The National Center on Response to Intervention rates PAR with their highest rating - convincing evidence - in all areas of reliability and validity. PAR subtests are representative of the expectations, knowledge and skills identified in the Common CORE State Standards (CCSS) for reading foundation skills (phonological awareness, phonics and word recognition, ability to read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension), and language skills (conventions of Standard English and vocabulary acquisition).
Yes, the PAR and CBM (Curriculum Based Measurement) can be used together effectively.
PAR’s Family Guide explains to parents what PAR measures and how to interpret the scoring- Remediation and Intensity Codes. In addition, the Family Report provides a summary of a student’s performance and specific strategies parents can employ at home to challenge students and scaffold learning.
The PAR kit includes assessment stimulus cards, score sheets, progress monitoring materials to go along with an online platform that allows teachers to get and share student and classroom data with parents and other educators.
The annual subscription starts at $7/student and includes all of the materials necessary for administering the PAR. Quantity pricing available.
Call 1-888-386-3822 option 1; fax your order to 336-777-0096; or send your purchase order to Red-e Set Grow, LLC P.O. Box 1674 Clemmons, NC 27012
OnlinePAR.net provides tutorials and other information about research and testimonials as to PAR’s effectiveness. Discussion and demonstrations of PAR can be scheduled by contacting Gavin Haque at: (888) 386-3822 Ext 1712 or firstname.lastname@example.org
PAR can be used as an initial screener for dyslexia because two of the PAR subtests directly assess areas that predict developmental dyslexia. These subtests, phonemic awareness and rapid naming speed, have been consistently shown to be concurrent predictors of dyslexia (Landeri, et. al, 2012, Pennington, Cardosao-Martins, Green, & Lefly, 2001; Torgensen, Wagner, Rashotte, Burgess, & Hecht, 1997). After administering PAR, educators can use the results to identify students who are predicted to struggle in learning to read based on one, or both, of these areas. As early as a Kindergarten, educators can identify these students and suggest further evaluation by a qualified professional.
Landeri, K., Ramus, F., Moll, K., Lyyhnen, H., Leppanen, P., Lohvansuu, K., . . . Schulte-Korne, G. (2012). Predictors of developmental dyslexia in European orthographies with varying complexity. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54, 686-694.
Pennington, B.F., Cardoso-Martins, C., Green, P.A., Lefly, D.L. Comparing the phonological and double deficit hypotheses for developmental dyslexia. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 14, 707-755.
Torgesen, J.K., Wagner, R.K., Rashotte, C.A., Burgess, C., & Hecht, S. (1997). Contributions of phonological awareness and rapid automatic naming ability to the growth of word-reading skills in second-to-fifth grade children. Scientific Studies of Reading, 1, 161-185.