A Universal Reading Screen and More! The Predictive Assessment of Reading
Most schools use some kind of test or assessment to evaluate children’s reading skills…but then what? Knowing a child’s reading skills at a specific time just isn’t enough. In order to make sure each child can read at their grade level, we need some way to predict how their reading skills may progress, determine exactly which skills will need intervention for improvement, and provide exact strategies for teachers so they can help children become strong readers.
Now, all this and more can be accomplished with the Predictive Assessment of Reading (PAR). PAR was developed at Wake Forest School of Medicine. It is based on a longitudinal study and additional research which began in 1986 and continues today. The research confirms that highly reliable and valid predictions of future reading skills can be produced from four carefully chosen tests given in second semester Pre-K through 3rd grade.
PAR Does it All
The Predictive Assessment of Reading (PAR) accurately measures a child’s current level of reading skills, but it doesn’t stop there… it also calculates an accurate prediction of present and future reading achievement. Once the gap between where the child is now, and where PAR predicts they will be at both the 3rd grade and 8th grade levels, PAR determines exactly which skills will need intervention for the child to become a strong reader, and provides suggested intervention strategies to strengthen the specific skills the child lacks, and it monitors progress.
Valid, Reliable Results
PAR is Quick, Easy and Provides Immediate Feedback.
The PAR is designed to be administered by a teacher, one child at a time, beginning with the spring semester for Pre-K children transitioning to kindergarten in the fall, then continuing up to three times a year for children in kindergarten through 3rd grade.
PAR is a quick and easy tool for accurately determining the reading challenges children face. Administration of the assessment takes no more than 15 minutes per child. PAR provides instant information that allows the teacher to really target the needs
The National Center on Response to Intervention rates PAR with their highest rating — convincing evidence — in all areas of reliability and validity. The PAR scoring algorithms and specificity of measurement are patented.
PAR Measures Four Key Areas
PAR tests four basic skills that every child needs in order to learn to read and to keep improving reading skills. They are:
Unique Scoring System
The unique, patented, PAR scoring system sets it apart from other assessments. It provides accurate, reliable results users can count on. The National Center on Response to Intervention rates PAR with their highest rating – convincing evidence- in all areas of reliability and validity.
PAR and Families
Connecting with parents and including them in the learning process is critical to the academic success of any child. PAR connects with families in two ways. First, the OnlinePAR includes a Parent Guide that explains what the PAR is, the skills that PAR evaluates, how to understand PAR scores and a description of things families can do at home with their child to support their learning.
Through OnlinePAR, families will be able to communicate with the teacher and monitor their child’s progress. It also provides an easy way for parents and teachers to discuss the reports, understand what they are saying, get ideas on how to support their child’s learning at home, and more … all designed to reinforce the partnership between the family and the teacher.
We offer a variety of training plans to meet different types of learning styles. PAR professional development is designed to be interactive, supplemented by practice to reinforce concept and understanding. All training is designed to prepare participants to become proficient in test administration on all scales, to utilize the OnlinePAR scoring and data-management system for capturing student data, and to inform instruction. The following options are available:
PAR Measures Pre-K to Grade 3
The PAR is appropriate for all children — including typically developing and gifted children, most children with special needs, and ELL-Spanish — beginning with second semester Pre-K children transitioning to school and for children in Kindergarten through third grade.
Red-e Set Grow consists of a team of leading educators in early childhood development, software developers, teachers and administrators who specialize in the development of software to support screening and assessment instruments.
Our goal is to help early childhood professionals track student progress with powerful, easy to use technology tools that assist in the development of quality educational programs for young children and their families. We do this through partnerships with content providers that provide researched based, reliable and
valid assessment tools designed to assist teachers by identifying a child’s strengths and those areas in which the child needs additional support. Each assessment is supported by an array of software platforms including handheld devices which provide teachers with the convenience of entering data and documenting a child’s work through pictures, videos, and/or sound, or entering data online through an easy o use web page. Each software product includes easy to read and understand reports for the child, classroom, school, district, etc. to help teachers and administrators plan, make effective decisions, and implement strategies that can be used with their existing curriculum.
There are no state alignments for this product at this time.
OnlinePAR.net reports help users identify appropriate intervention strategies to target and improve specific reading skills in children. The scores generated by PAR benefit all children and identify children with reading difficulties (the PAR not only identifies the child has a reading deficit but identifies the individual skills that need remediation) as well as those children who are reading at or above grade level so that all children are appropriately challenged.
PAR reports can be produced for a single time period or for multiple time periods enabling users to monitor progress over time. Reports are available for the child, for the classroom, for the school, for the group, and for the organization levels.
The Predictive Assessment of Reading (PAR) is a short (12 - 15 minute) universal reading test that:
Measures a student’s current level of reading skills;
Calculates an accurate prediction of present and future reading scores;
Tells what particular extra skill training each child needs; and
Suggests strategies for remediation of those needs.
PAR can be given beginning in the spring of Pre-K through 3rd grade and tests four basic skills that every child needs in order to learn to read and to keep growing in reading skills.
Picture Naming Vocabulary - Looking at a picture of an object and saying the name of the object. It’s a good way to measure a child’s overall vocabulary or knowledge of word meanings. Vocabulary is the foundation of language itself and is essential for growth in reading beyond 1st grade.
Letter-Word Calling - Looking at a word and pronouncing it correctly, either by sight (just knowing it), or by “sounding it out” (breaking the word “bat” into b-a-t, knowing the sound each letter makes, and blending the separate letters “b-a-t” together to make “bat.”)
Phonemic Awareness - Understanding the individual sounds in a word. If a child has trouble learning to read, it’s usually because of trouble with the sounds in words. The child may be able to hear and pronounce words correctly, but have difficulty taking the word apart into its individual sounds (for example, being able to say “ark” when asked to say “mark” without the “mmm” sound).
Rapid Naming Fluency - Quickly naming a string of familiar items on a page, such as series of numbers, letters, colors or objects.
PAR results are reported in three different ways:
Standard scores - Each skill area receives a score; then two overall composite scores are given; (1) the expected reading level on a current one-on-one test like the Woodcock-Johnson; and (2) the predicted future 3rd grade and 8th grade reading scores (3rd grade based on WJ III and 8th grade based on Gates Macginitie)
Remediation codes - These codes tell which skills should be the highest priority for remedial attention in order for reading skills to develop satisfactorily. Codes are provided for children in need of intervention, those reading at grade level, and those reading above current grade level.
Intensity codes - These codes tell how serious the need is for intervention and in what type of setting the student will best benefit (one-on-one, small group, whole class instruction).
The PAR can be administered to preschool children (those expected to transition to kindergarten in the fall) beginning in the spring semester and administered to children in kindergarten through the 3 grade in the fall, winter, and spring.
Yes, the PAR is available in both English and Spanish. The Spanish supplement to PAR uses a separate Picture Naming & Letter-Word Calling cue card with Spanish words. The Spanish supplement is intended for use with students in schools where either: (a) English is already the medium of instruction, or (b) the intended goal for students in the school is to acquire reading skills in English within the next three years.
PAR goes beyond measuring a student’s reading ability. It doesn’t just tell the teacher that the child is behind in reading; it provides data which shows the specific areas where the student needs the most instruction along with strategies to include in a classroom’s small-group time and whole classroom time.
PAR helps with the transition from testing to teaching. As many children will need the same type of help, some of the individualized instruction can be accomplished through whole class and small-group instruction, in addition to one-on-one attention. The advantage of using PAR over other reading assessments, is that once the teacher knows which skills each student needs to improve to be a successful reader, PAR provides ideas and instruction for both whole class and small-group times allowing the teacher to plan appropriate strategies based on the information learned from the most recent testing results. Whole class instruction includes information for Transition Times, Teacher Talk Time, and Text Times; while small-group settings include instruction for phonological decoding and vocabulary building.
PAR is quick and easy taking only about 12-15 minutes per student. It provides immediate feedback for teachers and a list of strategies for improvement and a means of monitoring. The PAR is designed to be administered by a teacher, one child at a time, beginning with the spring semester for Pre-K children transitioning to kindergarten in the fall, then continuing up to three times a year for children in kindergarten through 3rd grade.
The reliability, validity, specificity, sensitivity, classification accuracy data for PAR are all at or nearly at 90% for all measures which resulted in it being classified as having convincing evidence of its ability to accurately identify reading deficits. PAR has been completely researched and field tested since 1986. Please see our Technical Manual for a full description of this longitudinal research. PAR’s scoring logic is so specific that it has received a U.S. Patent for its scoring algorithms.
The predictive algorithms for PAR change over time. Different subtests are weighted differently in different years and portions of years. As a result, First Grade scores on PAR predict Eighth Grade reading better than any other First Grade screener predicts Second Grade reading. PAR accounts for changes in the demands of reading over time in a way other tests can’t (Steven Dykstra, 2014).
The National Center on Response to Intervention rates PAR with their highest rating - convincing evidence - in all areas of reliability and validity. PAR subtests are representative of the expectations, knowledge and skills identified in the Common CORE State Standards (CCSS) for reading foundation skills (phonological awareness, phonics and word recognition, ability to read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension), and language skills (conventions of Standard English and vocabulary acquisition).
Yes, the PAR and CBM (Curriculum Based Measurement) can be used together effectively.
PAR’s Family Guide explains to parents what PAR measures and how to interpret the scoring- Remediation and Intensity Codes. In addition, the Family Report provides a summary of a student’s performance and specific strategies parents can employ at home to challenge students and scaffold learning.
The PAR kit includes assessment stimulus cards, score sheets, progress monitoring materials to go along with an online platform that allows teachers to get and share student and classroom data with parents and other educators.
The annual subscription starts at $7/student and includes all of the materials necessary for administering the PAR. Quantity pricing available.
Call 1-888-386-3822 option 1; fax your order to 336-777-0096; or send your purchase order to Red-e Set Grow, LLC P.O. Box 1674 Clemmons, NC 27012
OnlinePAR.net provides tutorials and other information about research and testimonials as to PAR’s effectiveness. Discussion and demonstrations of PAR can be scheduled by contacting Gavin Haque at: (888) 386-3822 Ext 1712 or email@example.com
PAR can be used as an initial screener for dyslexia because two of the PAR subtests directly assess areas that predict developmental dyslexia. These subtests, phonemic awareness and rapid naming speed, have been consistently shown to be concurrent predictors of dyslexia (Landeri, et. al, 2012, Pennington, Cardosao-Martins, Green, & Lefly, 2001; Torgensen, Wagner, Rashotte, Burgess, & Hecht, 1997). After administering PAR, educators can use the results to identify students who are predicted to struggle in learning to read based on one, or both, of these areas. As early as a Kindergarten, educators can identify these students and suggest further evaluation by a qualified professional.
Landeri, K., Ramus, F., Moll, K., Lyyhnen, H., Leppanen, P., Lohvansuu, K., . . . Schulte-Korne, G. (2012). Predictors of developmental dyslexia in European orthographies with varying complexity. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54, 686-694.
Pennington, B.F., Cardoso-Martins, C., Green, P.A., Lefly, D.L. Comparing the phonological and double deficit hypotheses for developmental dyslexia. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 14, 707-755.
Torgesen, J.K., Wagner, R.K., Rashotte, C.A., Burgess, C., & Hecht, S. (1997). Contributions of phonological awareness and rapid automatic naming ability to the growth of word-reading skills in second-to-fifth grade children. Scientific Studies of Reading, 1, 161-185.